Special Collections and Archives

HOLY ROSARY MISSION -- RED CLOUD INDIAN SCHOOL RECORDS


Records of Red Cloud Indian School and the former Holy Rosary Mission, Pine Ridge, Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota. Presented by Red Cloud Indian School with additions from Red Cloud, individual Jesuits, Franciscan Sisters, and others, 1977-[ongoing]. The collection contains some records and papers pertaining to St. Francis Mission, Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota, which were retained here at the mutual requests of Red Cloud School and St. Francis Mission.

Processed by Philip C. Bantin  in 1977 and reprocessed by Mark G. Thiel, CA (Certified Archivist) in 1987-1988. Additions were processing in 1991-ongoing and selected series were microfilmed in 1997 and 2001. The photography was processed in 2006-2008.

See e-Archives for select materials available online.

Restrictions: Except as noted below, there are no restrictions to the use of records in this collection. However, the researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of libel, privacy, and copyright which may be involved in the use of these records. Consult an archivist for further information.


Historical Note

The Jesuits established Red Cloud Indian School in 1888. This followed Red Cloud's persistent requests for Catholic missionaries and the rescinding of federal restrictions on Catholic evangelization. Since then, Jesuits, Sisters of St. Francis, and lay employees (Lakota and non-Lakota) have staffed the school. After the termination of federal funding, the school continued to prosper through private contributions from Saint Katharine Drexel, federal disbursement of tribal funds held in trust, and operation of a ranch.

Catholicism flourished on the reservation during the first half of the 20th century. In most communities, local parishes were organized, each with a catechist, lay sodalities, and an itinerant Jesuit pastor. Annually, the faithful gathered for reservation wide general sodality meetings followed by the statewide Catholic Sioux Congress.

Christian fervor waned after World War II, which has been addressed by revitalization efforts since the 1970s. Parishes were re-organized with more resident (and fewer itinerant) Jesuit and Native priests and deacons, and parish councils. The general sodality meetings and Catholic Sioux Congresses remain popular among the elders. However, many faithful also attend Mini (diocesan) and National Tekakwitha Conferences and have organized parish Kateri Circles.

See also -- Holy Rosary Mission - Red Cloud Indian School -- Notable Events and Notable People

See also -- Authors and Photographers among the Jesuits and Franciscan Sisters

See also -- Catholic Native America digital image collections

Source: Entry Number M-222 of Guide to Catholic-Related Records in the Midwest about Native Americans.


Scope and Content

Series: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10

The collection documents the Catholic activity involving Jesuits within the Pine Ridge Reservation and neighboring areas. Substantial information pertains to Red Cloud Indian School, local and lay church activities, Dakota linguistic study, and Dakota oral literature. Limited information pertains to topics such as the Messiah Movement, the Black Hills claim, the chartering of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, the Wounded Knee insurrection, the Holy Rosary Mission Ranch in Nebraska, and St. Francis Mission on the Rosebud Reservation.

Documents in various formats by and about Holy Rosary-Red Cloud are extensive and dispersed throughout the collection. On a given event, Series 1 may contain the program, Series 6 may contain photographs, and Series 8 may contain news clippings. Also extensive and widely dispersed are material on development of the church among the Oglala, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, in Rapid City, and elsewhere.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 1, Correspondence: The operation of Red Cloud Indian School and Holy Rosary Mission is documented throughout the series. Specifically, there are letters regarding: origins (1879), school contracts between the mission and government (1908-1935), school sports and extra-curricular activities (1930s-present), school acquisition of the government's surplus military supplies and commodity foods (1946-1948), and the school's implementation of bicultural programs (1970s). Operation of the ranch is also noted (1924, 1937-1941). Also well-documented are Jesuit concerns regarding evangelization throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation and the Diocese of Rapid City. Among them are: a Bishop's letter on "spiritual dangers" (ca. 1910-1915), letters on joint government-missionary social policy conferences (1922), letters on the development of church facilities (1930s), [Nicholas] Black Elk's letter as a catechist asserting fidelity to Catholicism (January 26, 1934), a letter on declining needs for catechists (Schlitz to Brooks, June 24, 1940), an historical sketch on the Mother Butler Center and a program on the dedication of St. Isaac Jogues Church, Rapid City, (October 12, 1975), a letter on establishment of the Sioux Spiritual Center, Plainview (November 11, 1977), and a Lakota Times newspaper clipping (November 2, 1983) of a translated 1948 letter by [Nicholas] Black Elk regarding his spirituality. Oglala socio-economic and political concerns are reflected throughout the series as well. Included are letters on the Black Hills claim (Ralph H. Case: February 7, 1923, 1920s?, and September 3, 1943), the chartering of the Oglala Sioux Tribe (1932-1935), and the Wounded Knee insurrection (1973). Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 2, Reports: Notable among the reports are sacramental records and chronicles of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity. The sacramental records comprise two handwritten registers (books I and II) plus a typed copy and a handwritten card file that documents Pine Ridge Reservation participation in Catholic sacramental ceremonies, such as baptisms, first communions, confirmations, marriages, deaths, and confraternity participation, 1874-1935. Some gaps also exist.

The chronicles of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity include notes on the messiah movement, 1890-1891. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.

Sub-series Series 2-1, Sacramental Records (Registers I - II):

Within the registers, all sacramental entries were written in Latin whereas the confraternity memberships and other appended information was written in English. In addition, many surnames were written in Lakota with English translations. The registers are divided first by type of sacrament or event and arranged chronologically there under; the index volume is arranged alphabetically by the first letters of surnames and there under chronologically by baptismal dates and the card file is arranged alphabetically first by surname and there under by forename. The gap in baptismal entry numbers may indicate that some records have been lost.

In the registers, most baptismal entries were numbered sequentially with the baptized person’s name, parents’ names, name of priest (or catechist) performing the baptism with date, and place. Some entries also include notes on the person’s subsequent marriage date and spouse, children, address, and death date. Extracted entries from the sacramental records of St. Francis Mission, Rosebud Indian Reservation, are also included for Pine Ridge Reservation residents baptized there. Occasionally, other extracts are included for Pine Ridge Reservation residents baptized elsewhere, which is so-noted in the entry. “Baptismata alborum” (white baptisms) comprises a separate page of baptisms for white non-Indian residents of the Pine Ridge Reservation. The marriage entries include the names of the persons married, their baptismal place and date, the marriage witnesses, the presiding priest, the date, and the place, if given. The death entries include the names and age of the deceased and their death dates.

Brother William Siehr served Holy Rosary Mission since at least the 1930s with work that included clerical tasks. He was credited for creating the typed copies of Books I and II and he may have created the baptismal card file as well.

The typescript was compiled as one continuous document with identical content (including margin notes), arrangement and pagination. Preceding both books is a letter by Fr. Meinrad M. McCarthy, O.S.B., to Fr. Joseph Lindebner, S.J., February 28, 1900, regarding an 1879 baptism when Agent Valentine McGillycuddy had denied him permission to enter the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The original copy of that letter was transferred to the Series 1-1 General Correspondence.

Sub-series Series 2-2, Sacramental Records (Baptismal Card File): These baptismal records were compiled using index cards and English with one entry per card and an alphabetical arrangement by surname. The entries apparently came from sacramental registers at Holy Rosary Mission. However, the whereabouts of the registers for 1902-1906 are now unknown as the registers at Red Cloud Indian School today begin in 1906 with Book III (baptisms 2224-3245, 1906-1910). As in the registers, the entries contain the baptized person’s name, parents’ names, name of priest (or catechist) performing the baptism with date, and place. Most entries prior to 1935 contain an entry number. Some entries also include notes on the person’s subsequent marriage date and spouse, children, address, and death date. Although a comprehensive assessment has not been made, some entry cards are missing. No cards exist for surnames beginning with U to Z and, for example, no card exists for Nicholas Black Elk, who was baptized on December 6, 1904. A few cards contain tears and missing portions.

 

Sub-series Series 2-2, School Attendance and Enrollment Reports: These are reports of pupil attendance at the school, which were compiled quarterly and submitted to the federal government for the purpose of receiving per capita tuition payments from tribal trust funds. Generally, the lists include names of pupils and staff members, Indian tribal and non-Indian ethnicity, degree of Indian blood, dates of attendance with related comments, and statistical summaries. Many pupil lists are first categorized by gender, ethnicity, and lodging status and there under arranged alphabetically by surname.

Restrictions: The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 is a law governing access to student-related educational records that is enforced by the Family Policy Compliance Office (FPCO) of the U.S. Department of Education. In 1993, since FERPA's statutory language did not expressly answer questions regarding the termination of a student's right to prohibit disclosure, FPCO concluded that this right was personal and lapsed upon death (Correspondence of Leroy Rooker, Director of FPCO, to Honorable John J. Duncan, Jr., March 3, 1993). In standard archival practice, restrictions on life-long records are lifted 70 years after their date of creation. However, also due to FERPA's statutory language, these restrictions do not apply to student records held by non-educational institutions such as the U.S. National Archives, which also holds copies of these student attendance records. For more information about access to these records and other genealogical records at Marquette University, please submit an Application for Genealogical Query. For some schools, sanitized facsimiles (photocopies with obliterated confidential information) are available to on-site visitors as noted in the descriptive inventories. For contact information about access to these records at a record center of the U.S. National Archives, see Marquette's Guides to Catholic-Related Records about Native Americans in the United States. These records are not at Marquette, but at the institutions described. Because many sets of these attendance records contain gaps, knowing the whereabouts of other copies may be crucial for some research projects.

Indian Roll Census: A copy of census data compiled by the Pine Ridge Indian Agency.

Restrictions: Per agreement with the Oglala Sioux Tribe Enrollment Office, January 26, 1996, certified copies of two forms of personal identity documents must be presented in person for each genealogical request involving the Indian Roll Census. For further information, contact the Oglala Sioux Tribe Enrollment Office, Pine Ridge, South Dakota 57770, telephone (605) 867-1321.

Sub-series Series 2-2T, Red Cloud High School Student Transcripts: This series contains the official high school permanent transcripts of students who attended Red Cloud Indian High School (formerly Holy Rosary Mission High School). The records are divided by era and arranged alphabetically there under. Students are identified according to the surnames and forenames used in the records. In rare instances, where more than one forename and surname was used for the same person, multiple entries exist for that person. Marquette archives staff makes every effort to cross-reference all records through a database of former students.

According to the State of South Dakota records retention manual for local schools, page 57, "This series constitutes the student's permanent record which includes the official school transcript and persuant to SDCL 13-27-3.2, any copy of any certified birth certificate provided persuant to SDCL 13-27-3.1. Information on the transcript may include: student's name, address, identification number, date of birth, and gender; name of school; parent's name and phone number; enrollment history; transcript statistics; graduation date, diploma date and diploma received; courses taken; grades and credit received; academic achievement test scores and written permission to release scores persuant to SDCL 13-3-56; and a record of participation in recognized school activities or sports. This record series is maintained to document academic achievements and to provide a complete record of grades attained. RETENTION: Retain permanently. Revised 2013."

Restrictions: All requests for transcripts must be made through Red Cloud High School during regular business hours. Facsimile copies may be sent to any third party authorized through Red Cloud High School. For further information, contact Red Cloud High School, 100 Mission Drive, Pine Ridge, South Dakota 57770-2100. Phone:(605) 867-5888.

The Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 2-1, includes additional pupil attendance records for the school. For more information about these unique school attendance records, see the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records Scope and Content Note for Series 2-1.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 3, Financial Records: Document local parish and sodality expenses and the mission ranch.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 4, Proceedings: Proceedings by Jesuits, Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity, and others at the school and elsewhere. Also included are sodality records from St. Alphonsus Chapel. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.

Catholic Sioux Congress: The Congress records were acquired from both Red Cloud Indian School and St. Francis Mission. Archives staff combined them into one enriched file within the Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 4. The Catholic Sioux Congress records include records of the South Dakota Congress (1920-1988) and the Montana-North Dakota Congress (1943-1986). Topics include discussions on "Spiritual dangers" (South Dakota, 1920s-1970s), religious vocations (South Dakota, 1961, 1967-1970s), and use of the sacred pipe (1973-1970s).

Wisconsin Jesuit Province Indian Apostolate Board: The Indian Apostolate Board records (1966-1990) were acquired from both Red Cloud Indian School and St. Francis Mission. Archives staff combined them into one enriched file within the Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 4. The Board addressed common Jesuit concerns at Holy Rosary-Red Cloud, St. Francis Mission, Rosebud Reservation, and Mother Butler Center/St. Isaac Jogues Church, Rapid City. Its topics included discussions on religious vocations among Native Americans.

The St. Alphonsus Chapel sodality records by Joseph Bad Yellow Hair include minutes of sodality meetings and activities and two appended winter counts not related to the sodality.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 5, Publications: This series includes printed appeal letters by Jesuits, school literary works--Voices of Red Cloud and And Morning Followed; yearbooks (with identified student pictures) --The Crusader, 1940s-1950s, and Rosary, 1950s, and Red Cloud's Dream, 1960s-[ongoing]; curriculum texts--Ehanni Ohunkakan and Lakota Stories; a staff orientation manual--A Source Book, et. al.; and a variety of newspapers.

The appeal letters are arranged chronologically and there under by author and title in some instances. They describe missionary activities (e.g. home visitations), notable Native Catholics and their families (e.g. Nick Black Elk and family), and reservation life. Rev. Joseph A. Zimmerman describes Lucy Black Elk Looks Twice playing the organ at Christmas eve midnight mass (1931), his home visitations with the presentation of first-class relics from Kateri Tekakwitha and Jesuit martyrs (Feast of St. Joseph, 1939), highlights from the life of medicine man-catechist Nick Black Elk (Feast of Christ the King, 1940), and the wartime homecoming for T-Sgt. Henry Black Elk and Cpl. Katie Black Elk (Feast of the Immaculate Conception, 1944).

Other series within this and other Marquette University collections related documentation or additional holdings of of Holy Rosary - Red Cloud publications. The Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 14-1, contains substantial holdings of serial titles, e.g. Freshman Voices, The Crusader, Rosary, Red Cloud's Dream, Special Voices of Red Cloud, and Voices of Red Cloud. For more information, see the Complete List of Red Cloud High School Yearbooks in Marquette University Collections.

Work in-progress: The Marquette University Libraries are developing bibliographic records for the publications in this collection. This includes all books, pamphlets, magazines, newsletters, prayer cards, published maps, published sound and video recordings, etc., and excludes clipping files and reprints of articles. As they are created, the bibliographic records will appear in Marqcat, the Marquette University online catalog. Furthermore, as an interim and supplemental search tool, most titles to publications in this and related collections appear in the Index to Publications in Native America Collections.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 6, Photography: Photography by Jesuits or others and collected by Jesuits at Holy Rosary-Red Cloud. Red Cloud School transferred the bulk of the photography to Marquette University with the exception of a few items donated by individuals. While most images pertain to Holy Rosary-Red Cloud, Oglala Indians, and the Pine Ridge Reservation, some images pertain to St. Francis Mission, Brulé [Sicangu] Indians, and the Rosebud Reservation or elsewhere in South Dakota and adjacent states. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series. The photographs are divided first by format into black and white and color prints and negatives. The black and white prints are divided into four categories: albums and three subject files: biographical, geographical, and topical. The albums are arranged numerically and include various mixed topics, which are described in the inventory. The latter three file categories are further divided into subjects arranged alphabetically with a name and number with smaller prints -- 8 x 10 inches and smaller -- preceding those with larger dimensions. Cross-referencing facilitates searching across categories and subjects.

Some voluminous subjects have more than one folder of prints and duplicate copies and/or photocopies with "see also" notes included within one or more folders. "Unidentified" and "Unknown" denote subjects and places, respectively, that lack identification, although they may be identifiable. Throughout the inventories, "See" and "See also" notes are located at the end of a number of subject entries, which provide cross-referencing between related subjects and oversized prints. For each folder, the dates noted are limited to the first and last known years when images were created with intervening years, if any, not included. These are followed by “n.d.” for “no dates” to indicate undated images. In addition, staff may determine and note approximate dates in parentheses as follows:

• "n.d." (ca. year-year) = No creation years known; the years given identify the approximate years derived from clues within the images and related text.

• “n.d. (Used Red Cloud Country)” or “n.d. (Used Other Title)” = No creation years known; the years given identify when Red Cloud Country or Other Title first published the images, which typically was less than 10 years after they were taken.

Photographers/Studios, Photo Finishers, and Other Repositories: It is believed that Jesuit photographers created the bulk of the photographs even though, for most prints, the photographer has not been identified. Throughout this series, one or more prints have been attributed to those noted below. Many other photographers and photo finishers stamped the border or verso of prints with their business name and location and possibly the date when the image was taken or developed, which provides important clues in identifying the year and location of an image's creation. Typically images were developed soon after their creation and within 100 miles of that location. The collection also includes a number of copy prints from several archival repositories, which are so-noted in the folder headings by "[copy print (s) from other repository (ies)]," which applies to all items within a folder, and "[includes copy print (s) from other repository (ies)]," which applies to only some items within a folder.

Master List of Photographers, Studios, Photo Finishers, and Photographic Repositories: This list contains all known sources represented in the photography.

Sub-series 6-1, Black & White Prints -- Albums: The albums are arranged numerically and include mixed topics, which are described below. All boxes are oversize, the numbers of which are distinguished by the letter prefix "AO." Selected images from volumes 1 and 2 appear in the Holy Rosary Mission - Red Cloud Indian School Digital Image Collection.

Volume 1: Undated (1890s-1930s), 113 pages (30 x 24.7 cm). Holy Rosary Mission and pupils with Jesuits and Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity; Pine Ridge Reservation churches, Catholic Sioux Congress, catechists, feasts, parades, Omaha dance, round dance (woman's dance); badlands landscapes; notable individuals: Rev. Pierre-Jean De Smet, S.J., Chief Bear Shield, Chief Red Cloud, Henry Many Cartridges, Short Bull, and Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude S. Bonnin). Most images are duplicate prints found elsewhere in this series and the Holy Rosary Mission folders in Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records Series 9-1.

Volume 2: 1907-1920, undated (1900s-1910s), 50 pages (25.5 x 18 cm). Oglala and Brulé Indian individuals and families, including Hollow Horn Bear, Mr. and Mrs. One Star, Iron Boy, Joe Red Bull, Left Hand Bull family, and Jim and Willie DuBray; many wearing traditional clothes; compiled by Rev. Placidus F. Sialm, S.J., ca. 1912-1920.

Volume 3: Undated (1960s), 38 pages; 50 prints, 5 x 7-inches. Holy Rosary Mission and pupils with Jesuits and Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity engaged in a series of actives, apparently an end of the school year celebration. The events include Mass with First Communion, a banquet, and performances by student choirs and a school play.

Volume 4: 1922, 1961, undated (1920s-1930s, 1960s), 40 pages (35.5 x 27.9 cm); 176 prints (1 in color). Primarily activities Holy Rosary Mission by pupils, Jesuits and Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity with a few from elsewhere on the Pine Ridge Reservation such as Our Lady of Lourdes Mission, Porcupine. Most images are duplicates or related views found elsewhere in this series. Compiled by Rev. Leo C. Cunningham, S.J., and donated by Rev. Michael F. Steltenkamp, S.J. (found at University of Detroit Jesuit Residence).

Volume 5: Undated (1940s). Primarily Oglala Indian men and women in military uniforms, including Clarence (or Cleveland?) (Moot) Nelson (Oglala); also pupils in traditional dress.

Volume 6: Undated (1960s). Holy Rosary Mission pupils, buildings, and landscapes; includes pupils engaged in dances, sporting events, classroom activities, games, play and traditional Oglala dance and ceremonies; also churches, cafeteria, classrooms, cabins, and other buildings

Volume 7: Undated (1960s). Holy Rosary Mission pupils, buildings, and landscapes; includes parties and dances, cheer leading, bedtime, praying before bedtime, doing laundry, typing, and studying also classrooms, cafeteria, laundry, and other buildings.

Volume 8: 1888, 1945-1950, undated (1940s). Holy Rosary Mission pupils, buildings, and landscapes; extensive identification of subjects included, 30 pages. Compiled/ donated by Charles A. Trimble, 1952 graduate.

Volume 9: 1945-1948, undated (1940s). Holy Rosary Mission pupils, buildings, and landscapes by Rev. Joseph A. Zimmerman, S.J.; extensive identification of subjects included, 55 pages. Compiled/ donated by Charles A. Trimble, 1952 graduate.

Volume 10: 1888, 1949-1980, undated (1950s-1970s). Holy Rosary Mission pupils, buildings, and landscapes; extensive identification of subjects included, 101 pages (1 print in color). Compiled/ donated by Charles A. Trimble, 1952 graduate.

Sub-series 6-1, Black & White Prints -- Biographical Files: The files focus on prints of individual persons, which are arranged alphabetically by surname whenever possible. Persons without surnames and those whose surnames are unknown, are alphabetized by the forenames given. The folder titles contain personal names; personal titles, initials denoting religious institute (order) affiliation, if any and if known, tribal affiliation for Native Americans, if known, and date taken, if known. Archives staff added personal titles whenever the person's gender was not apparent from other information in the folder title, e.g. Mr., Ms., Mrs. The Help Page for Native America Images provides links to glossaries of Catholic and Native American terms and titles and master lists of Catholic and Native American groups. The list of Catholic groups provides identification of the initials used by members of religious institutes. Locations where the images were taken were not determined and are not included in the folder titles. The boxes are letter size and oversize, which are distinguished by the letter prefix "B" and "BO" respectively.

Sub-series 6-1, Black & White Prints -- Geographical Files: The files focus on prints of specific and general locations, which are divided first into those from South Dakota followed by ones from other states and countries. There under the prints are arranged alphabetically by place. The folder titles contain the geographic location of prints in descending order beginning with state, reservation, if any, locality, and Catholic institution, if pertinent. The bulk of the geographical files pertain to Holy Rosary-Red Cloud and/or the Pine Ridge Reservation. However, for a number of prints, definitive evidence on the location of images is neither self-evident nor stated on associated documentation. Unless contrary evidence is available, Holy Rosary Mission - Red Cloud Indian School and/or the Pine Ridge Reservation are the presumed locations. While some of the prints are generally known to have been taken within the general area of the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, etc., specific locations may be unidentified and unknown. Folders containing such prints are so-noted within their general locations as "Unidentified/Unknown." The boxes are letter size and oversize, which are distinguished by the letter prefix "G" and "GO" respectively.

Sub-series 6-1, Black & White Prints -- Topical Files: The files focus on prints of activities, groups, and objects, which are arranged alphabetically by topic with locations and dates noted, to the extent known. The folder titles contain the topic, location, if known, and dates, if known. Topics with substantial numbers of prints are further divided into sub-topics. The bulk of the topical files pertain to Holy Rosary-Red Cloud and/or the Pine Ridge Reservation. However, for a number of prints, definitive evidence on the location of images is neither self-evident nor stated on associated documentation. Unless contrary evidence is available, Holy Rosary-Red Cloud and/or the Pine Ridge Reservation are the presumed locations. While some of the prints are generally known to have been taken within the general area of the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, etc., specific locations may be unidentified and unknown. Folders containing such prints are so-noted within their general locations as "Unidentified/Unknown." The boxes are letter size and oversize, which are distinguished by the letter prefix "T" and "TO" respectively.

Sub-series 6-2, Color Prints -- Biographical Files, Geographical Files, and Topical Files: The colored prints are divided into biographical, geographical, and topical files and arranged there under. A few color prints are also included within the black and white albums, which are so noted above.

Sub-series 6-3, Color Slides: The colored slides are arranged chronologically.

Sub-series 6-4, Film Negatives (Black & White and Color).

Sub-series 6-5, DVD: TIFF scans arranged numerically by identification number.

Sub-series 6-6, Glass-Plate Negatives: Comprises 12 photographic negatives plus a two-piece Eastman Kodak box and a dated newspaper slip (0.1 cubic foot) that were received from Red Cloud Indian School in 2009. The box had contained the negatives interleaved with newspaper slips; its top bears the signature, "Joseph A. Zimmerman"; and the one retained interleaving slip contains a 1921 publication date, all of which suggest that the photographer was Father Zimmerman around 1920.

Catholic Ladders: Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 6-2, includes color photographic copies of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 7-1, under author unknown, includes narrative scripts to aid the use of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 8, contains original copies of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; and Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 8-1 and 8-2, contain original and electronic copies of various mnemonic and pictorial ladder catechisms. Father Buechel's photography in Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 6-1, and St. Francis Mission Records, Series 6-5, contain images of persons using these catechisms.

The Marquette University Digital Collections, as well as off-line Marquette collections, contain more photography about St. Francis Mission and the Rosebud Reservation. On request, archives staff will develop custom catalogues to off-line images for patrons who provide specific parameters defined by broad subject categories, place, and years.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 7, Jesuit Papers: Personal papers of Jesuits with papers of others collected by Jesuits at Holy Rosary-Red Cloud. Red Cloud School transferred the bulk of the papers to Marquette University with the exception of some items donated by Jesuits themselves. While most papers pertain to Holy Rosary-Red Cloud, Oglala Indians, and the Pine Ridge Reservation, some papers pertain to St. Francis Mission, Brulé [Sicangu] Indians, and the Rosebud Reservation, Rapid City, or elsewhere in South Dakota and adjacent states. This reflects, the diverse ministries served by Jesuits and their propensity to retain and share their personal papers with other Jesuits. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.

Work in-progress: The Marquette University Libraries are developing bibliographic records for the publications in this collection. This includes all books, pamphlets, magazines, newsletters, prayer cards, published maps, published sound and video recordings, etc., and excludes clipping files and reprints of articles. As they are created, the bibliographic records will appear in Marqcat, the Marquette University online catalog. Furthermore, as an interim and supplemental search tool, most titles to publications in this and related collections appear in the Index to Publications in Native America Collections.

Buechel, Reverend Eugene, S.J.: The Jesuit Papers in the Holy Rosary - Red Cloud records contain the bulk of Father Buechel's research papers regarding Brulé and Oglala language, beliefs, and traditions. They include papers authored by himself and the following Oglala and Brulé [Sicangu] Indians. However, his photography of Holy Rosary Mission, the Pine Ridge Reservation, St. Francis Mission, and the Rosebud Reservation is in the St. Francis Mission Records, Series 6, and his diary, personal correspondence, photography, and sermons from Holy Rosary Mission, the Pine Ridge Reservation, St. Francis Mission, and the Rosebud Reservation, are in the the St. Francis Mission Records, Series 7. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain more documentation about Father Buechel and the native authors who collaborated with him. Father Buechel's background.

Most of the following literary and historical narratives were published in the original Lakota with English translations in Lakota Tales and Texts in Translation, PM1024.Z9 L33613 1998, 2 volumes.

 

Name (Tribe, if known) Writings (Location, if not Series 7-1 under Reverend Eugene Buechel, S.J.)
Bad Yellow Hair (Oglala)  
Asa
Literary Narratives
Joseph
Literary Narratives and St. Alphonsus Chapel Sodality Records with appended Winter Counts (Series 4)
Big Missouri Winter Count
Big Turkey, Peter (Brulé) Literary Narratives
Black Elk, Martin (Oglala) Religious Writings
Black Wolf Literary Narratives
Blue Horse Owner Literary Narratives
Brave Dog Literary Narratives
Bull Ring Winter Count
Canrarake Literary Narratives
Crazy Horse, Chief (Oglala) Literary Narratives
Eagle Feather, Ralph Historical Narratives
Fills the Pipe, Silas (Oglala) Literary Narratives and Winter Counts
Good Horse, Peter Literary Narratives
He Crow, Joseph Literary Narratives
High Dog Literary Narratives
Iron Shell, Peter Literary Narratives
Itunkasan Gleska Literary Narratives
Little Cloud Literary Narratives
Little Killer Literary Narratives
Lone Man (Oglala) Literary Narratives
Lone Wolf, Richard (Oglala) Literary Narratives
Mato Cangleska Literary Narratives
Nakpogi Oguja Literary Narratives
No Ears, John Drawings and Winter Counts
No Water, Joseph Literary Narratives
Old Walker Literary Narratives
Pretty Eagle Historical Narratives and Literary Narratives
Pretty Weasel Literary Narratives
Red Horn Literary Narratives
Red Feather Drawings
Ring Thunder, Benjamin (Brulé) Literary Narratives
Singing Bear Literary Narratives
Sitting Elk Literary Narratives
Spotted Elk Literary Narratives
Spotted Thunder Literary Narratives
Stars [Come Out], Ivan (Oglala) Literary Narratives
Thunder Tail, John Literary Narratives
Wakeniyen Ska Winter Count
Wakinyan Situpi Literary Narratives
Walking Elk, Ignatius Literary Narratives
Wanbli Gleska Literary Narratives
Wanbli Waste Historical Narratives
Wata Peta Winter Count
Water, Alex Literary Narratives
Wawoslata Literary Narratives
White Head Around Literary Narratives
White Lance, Jesse Literary Narratives
Young Skunk, Henry Historical Narratives

 

Zimmerman, Reverend Joseph A., S.J.: The Jesuit Papers (facsimiles -- High Eagle and His Sioux) and publications (appeal letters) in the Holy Rosary - Red Cloud records contain the bulk of Father Zimmerman's writings regarding Brulé and Oglala life. His photography is scattered within Holy Rosary - Red Cloud Series 6, St. Francis Mission Records, Series 6, and the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, Series 9-1. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain more documentation about Father Zimmerman and the native authors who collaborated with him. Father Zimmerman's background

Catholic Ladders: Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 6-2, includes color photographic copies of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 7-1, under author unknown, includes narrative scripts to aid the use of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 8, contains original copies of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; and Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 8-1 and 8-2, contain original and electronic copies of various mnemonic and pictorial ladder catechisms. Father Buechel's photography in Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 6-1, and St. Francis Mission Records, Series 6-5, contain images of persons using these catechisms.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 8, Collected Publications: Publications, clippings, and U.S. Government documents pertaining to the Pine Ridge Reservation, at least in part. Red Cloud Indian School collected the bulk of these items with additional ones added by the Marquette University Archives. Other series within this and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.

Work in-progress: The Marquette University Libraries are developing bibliographic records for the publications in this collection. This includes all books, pamphlets, magazines, newsletters, prayer cards, published maps, published sound and video recordings, etc., and excludes clipping files and reprints of articles. As they are created, the bibliographic records will appear in Marqcat, the Marquette University online catalog. Furthermore, as an interim and supplemental search tool, most titles to publications in this and related collections appear in the Index to Publications in Native America Collections.

Federal Documents: Contain a copy of the transcript of a meeting between President Rutherford B. Hayes and Chiefs Red Cloud and Spotted Tail at the White House in 1877. It includes a request for Jesuits by Red Cloud and Spotted Tail. Other concerns include the Black Hills claim (1868, 1890, 1913, n.d.), the chartering of the Oglala Sioux Tribe and its commemoration (ca. 1930-1936), and reservation poverty, social unrest, racism, tribal nationalism, and the 1973 Wounded Knee occupation (1957-1975). The Pine Ridge Research Bulletin, no. 2, 5, 7, 10, and 11, describe several local churches and Native Christian life.

Newspaper Clippings: Notable topics include mission origins (1877, 1903, 1908), school curriculum, sports, extracurricular activities (1920s-present), and bicultural education (1970s), the Messiah movement and its commemoration (1890-1891, 1986), and reservation poverty, social unrest, racism, tribal nationalism, and the Wounded Knee occupation (1960s-1974).

Published Writings: Those by Bryde, Duratschek, Giago, Smith, and the journal articles include information relating to the school (1963-1964).

Diocese of Rapid City Records: The Permanent Diaconate Program addresses concerns on religious vocations and and Priests' Senate minutes express concerns on poverty, social unrest, and racism (1974-1975.

Catholic Ladders: Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 6-2, includes color photographic copies of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 7-1, under author unknown, includes narrative scripts to aid the use of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 8, contains original copies of Lacombe's "Two Roads" or Tableau-Catéchisme = Pictorial Catechism; and Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 8-1 and 8-2, contain original and electronic copies of various mnemonic and pictorial ladder catechisms. Father Buechel's photography in Holy Rosary Mission-Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 6-1, and St. Francis Mission Records, Series 6-5, contain images of persons using these catechisms.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 9, Sound Recordings: Sound recordings recorded or collected by Jesuits at Holy Rosary-Red Cloud. Red Cloud School transferred the bulk of the recordings to Marquette University with the exception of a few related items added by archives staff. While most recordings pertain to Holy Rosary-Red Cloud, Oglala Indians, and the Pine Ridge Reservation, some pertain to Indians in Rapid City or elsewhere. This reflects, the diverse ministries served by Jesuits and their propensity to retain and share their personal papers with other Jesuits. Other series within the Holy Rosary Mission & Red Cloud Indian School Records and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.

Work in-progress: The Marquette University Libraries are developing bibliographic records for the publications in this collection. This includes all books, pamphlets, magazines, newsletters, prayer cards, published maps, published sound and video recordings, etc., and excludes clipping files and reprints of articles. As they are created, the bibliographic records will appear in Marqcat, the Marquette University online catalog. Furthermore, as an interim and supplemental search tool, most titles to publications in this and related collections appear in the Index to Publications in Native America Collections.

General Recordings

Black Elk, Benjamin "Ben:" Two presentations on Oglala history, culture, and religion.

Holy Rosary Mission Summer Session: Towards an Indian Perspective: A 1978 summer conference at Holy Rosary Mission, Pine Ridge Reservation, that featured Brulé and Oglala Indians, Jesuits, and others familiar with Catholic Church involvement on Indian reservations in South Dakota. See the St. Francis Mission Records, Series 9.

Jesuit Recordings

Casey, Reverend George, S.J.: Father Casey created Lakota language teaching aids with Cornelius Kills Small (Oglala) and others.

Steinmetz, Reverend Paul B., S.J.: Includes Peyote and Yuwipi songs recorded and collected by Father Steinmetz, a Ben Black Elk funeral eulogy and presentation on the pipe and Lakota ceremonies by Father Steinmetz, and a prayer service by Reverend John Hascall (Ojibwa), O.F.M.Cap.

Stolzman, Reverend William F.: Father Stolzman created Lakota language teaching aids with Reyes Hernandez (Oglala). Also included are drafts and presentations on the Medicine Men and Clergy Meetings held at St. Francis Mission, Rosebud Reservation, and the resulting book, The Pipe and Christ: A Christian-Sioux Dialogue (1986), a comparative analysis of Catholic and Lakota belief and ritual. Father Stolzman's other papers and recordings are within the St. Francis Mission Records, Series 7 and 9, and the Holy Rosary Mission - Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 7. Father Stolzman's background.

White, Reverend Robert A., S.J.: Discussions in Rapid City, South Dakota recorded and collected by sociologist Father Bob White regarding that city's urban poor. Most of these people were then recent immigrants from the Cheyenne River (Sans Arc), Pine Ridge (Oglala), and Rosebud Reservations (Brulé).


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 10, Motion Pictures and Video Recordings: Video recordings recorded or collected by Jesuits at Holy Rosary-Red Cloud. Red Cloud School transferred the bulk of the recordings to Marquette University with the exception of a few related items added by archives staff. While most recordings pertain to Holy Rosary-Red Cloud, Oglala Indians, and the Pine Ridge Reservation, a few pertains to the Diocese of Rapid City and elsewhere. This reflects, the diverse ministries served by Jesuits and their propensity to retain and share their personal papers with other Jesuits. Other series within the Holy Rosary Mission & Red Cloud Indian School Records and other Marquette University collections contain documentation relating to this series.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 11, Objects: Various objects from Holy Rosary-Red Cloud and Catholic parishioners throughout the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.


Holy Rosary Mission -- Red Cloud Indian School Series 0, Unprocessed and Non-Archival Records: Marquette University also holds unprocessed archival records from Red Cloud Indian School. These records have not yet been prepared for research use and some restrictions may apply. Please consult the archives staff regarding their availability.

 

More Related Resources

  • Christianity and Native America: Checklist to all Marquette Native Catholic collections plus access to detailed information about them including genealogical records; access to digital image collections and The Indian Sentinel historic magazine online; information for educators about Saint Kateri Tekakwitha and her Native Catholic followers.

  • Guides to Catholic-Related Records about Native Americans in the United States: Over 1,000 repository entries in PDF format to help genealogists and historical researchers find the records they need on American Indians and Alaskan Natives. The entries provide contact information on the repositories, brief descriptions about the records, the Native groups served, and the associated Catholic organizations. Many of the entries include institutional chronologies to explain the history of the records.

Black and Indian Mission Office > Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions

Tekakwitha Conference National Center

U.S. Catholic Conference of Catholic Bishops > Cultural Diversity in the Church

 

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