Presented by Red Cloud Indian School with additions from Red Cloud, individual Jesuits, and others, 1977-[ongoing]. The collection contains some records and papers pertaining to St. Francis Mission, Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota, which were retained here at the mutual requests of Red Cloud School and St. Francis Mission.
Processed by Philip C. Bantin, 1977, and Mark G. Thiel, 1987-[ongoing], with selected series microfilmed, 1997 and 2001.
The Jesuits established Red Cloud Indian School in 1888. This followed Red Cloud's persistent requests for Catholic missionaries and the rescinding of federal restrictions on Catholic evangelization. Since then, Jesuits, Sisters of St. Francis, and lay employees (Lakota and non-Lakota) have staffed the school. After the termination of federal funding, the school continued to prosper through private contributions from Saint Katherine Drexel, federal disbursement of tribal funds held in trust, and operation of a ranch.
Catholicism flourished on the reservation during the first half of the 20th century. In most communities, local parishes were organized, each with a catechist, lay sodalities, and an itinerant Jesuit pastor. Annually, the faithful gathered for reservation wide general sodality meetings followed by the statewide Catholic Sioux Congress.
Christian fervor waned after World War II, which has been addressed by revitalization efforts since the 1970s. Parishes were re-organized with more resident (and fewer itinerant) Jesuit and Native priests and deacons, and parish councils. The general sodality meetings and Catholic Sioux Congresses remain popular among the elders. However, many faithful also attend Mini (diocesan) and National Tekakwitha Conferences and have organized parish Kateri Circles.
Principal sources: Entry M-222 of Guide to Catholic-Related Records in the Midwest about Native Americans and Red Cloud's Dream yearbook, 1980, pp. 116-119.
|1840-1870||Reverend Pierre-Jean de Smet (1801-1873), S.J., an itinerant missionary, befriended the Oglala people.|
|1870-1881||Under the Peace Policy of U.S. President U.S. Grant, the government banned Catholic missionaries from the Pine Ridge Agency.|
|On many different occasions Chief Red Cloud (1822-1909) requested Catholic missionaries for the Oglala people. Among the first times was a council with government officials on White Clay Creek in 1876 and at a White House meeting with President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877. To President Hayes, Red Cloud said, "We would like to have a school house--a large one, that will hold plenty of people. We would like to have Catholic priests and Catholic nuns, so that they could teach our people how to write and read, and instruct us how to do..."|
|1879, 1889||The Vicariate Apostolate of Dakota Territory was established, which became the Diocese of Sioux Falls in 1889.|
|1879-1894||Bishop Martin Marty, O.S.B., served as Vicar of Dakota Territory and then first Bishop of Sioux Falls.|
|1879-1883||Benedictine Monks from Standing Rock Reservation visited intermittently.|
|1883-1888||Diocesan priests from the Rosebud Reservation visited intermittently.|
|1884||On March 9th, Reverend J.A. Bushman baptized Chief Red Cloud, who then took "Peter" as his forename.|
|1885-1888||Bishop Marty asked the Jesuits of the German Province (Buffalo, New York and Holland; now Munich, Germany) to establish a mission. Reverend John B. Jutz, S.J. and Brother Ursus Nunlist, S.J., established the Jesuit community by picking a site and constructing the first buildings for a school and living quarters.|
|1887||Saint Katharine Drexel (1858-1955), a wealthy Philadelphia heiress, promised Red Cloud that she would fund the mission school.|
|1888-present||The Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity (first Mary Immaculate Province, Nonnenwerth, Germany, then Holy Name Province (Stella Niagara, New York) and later the Sacred Heart Province (Denver, Colorado) established a community and taught at the Holy Rosary Mission school.|
|1888-1889||The school enrollment was about 100 students, grades 1-8; all were boarders who stayed for 10 months.|
|1889-1890||The federal government began partial funding of the school.|
|December 1890- January 1891||Red Cloud protected the mission from possible to retaliation following the killing of Sitting Bull at Standing Rock Reservation and the massacre of many Sans Arc and other Indians at Wounded Knee Creek.|
|1890||Sacred Heart Church was established in Pine Ridge Village.|
|1891||Pine Ridge Reservation delegates attended their first annual Catholic Sioux Congress at Standing Rock Reservation. The catechetical ministry and the St. Mary and St. Joseph Societies were then organized within the reservation parishes.|
|1895-1950s||In the Canadian West, Father Albert Lacombe, O.M.I., created the Tableau-Catéchisme (Pictorial Catechism) or "Two Roads" based on Blanchet's L’Éschelle Catholique Historique. Lacombe added color graphics and two paths -- the evil way with a black road and a righteousness way with a red road each replete with corresponding symbols. On South Dakota Indian reservations and elsewhere in the United States and Canada, Catholic missionaries and native catechists used the “Two Roads” together with native language worship publications to the mid-20th century.|
|1896||Holy Rosary Mission hosted its first Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1896-1904||Government school funding decreased gradually and then stopped. More money became available through Katharine Drexel and other Church sources.|
|1898||The construction is finished on Holy Rosary Church, which has served as the school chapel and a local parish.|
|1901-1937||Throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation itinerant Jesuits from Holy Rosary Mission established and attended to many chapels and missions, a number of which later became parishes.|
|1902||The Diocese of Lead was established and included all of South Dakota west of the Missouri River.|
|1902-1909||Bishop John Stariha (1845-1915) served as the first Bishop of Lead.|
|1902-1987||Holy Rosary Mission operated a ranch in Nebraska.|
|1903||A kindergarten was established at the Holy Rosary Mission school.|
|1904-1905||The school enrollment exceeded 200 students for the first time.|
|1904-1906||A new wing was added to the girl's dormitory of the school.|
|1904-1950||Holy man [Nicholas] Black Elk 1863-1950) was baptized on St. Nicholas' Day, December 6th, 1904. He then served as a local catechist and with Reverend Henry Westropp, S.J., he was also active as a missionary to other Northern Plains tribes from 1908-1917.|
|1906||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1906||The first recorded baptism by a catechist was performed by Ivan Star Comes Out.|
|1906-1935||The government made tribal treaty funds available for school support. These were federally administered funds available on a per capita basis through a petition process.|
|1907||Among the Jesuits, administration over Holy Rosary Mission transferred from the German Province's Buffalo Mission to the former Turin Province's Rocky Mountain Mission (now consolidated with the Italian Province, Rome, Italy).|
|1909||Among the Jesuits, administration over Holy Rosary Mission transferred to the California Province (Los Gatos, California).|
|1910||Jesuits incorporated Holy Rosary Mission as the Pine Ridge Educational Society.|
|1910-1915||Bishop Joseph Busch (1866-1953) served as the second Bishop of Lead.|
|1911||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1912||Among the Jesuits, administration over Holy Rosary Mission transferred to the Missouri Province (headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri).|
|1916||Fire at St. Francis Mission (Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota) destroys many Holy Rosary archival records that were stored there.|
|1916-1948||Bishop John J. Lawler (1862-1948) served as the third Bishop of Lead.|
|1916-1922||Itinerant Jesuits from Holy Rosary established and attended to Sacred Heart Mission, Santee, Nebraska, which then became an independent mission.|
|1918||Severe flooding damaged Holy Rosary Mission and its principal buildings were wired for electricity.|
|1919||The students began to see monthly movies.|
|1920-1925||Several parishes closed throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation.|
|1920||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1922||Red Cloud Hall was built to serve as the boy's dormitory of the school.|
|1923||The Sodality of the Immaculate Conception was organized. It was the first sodality organized at the school.|
|1923-1926||A junior high school was established and then discontinued due to space limitations.|
|1925||Bob Clifford (Oglala) organized Holy Rosary's first boys' basketball team.|
|1925-1926||The Holy Rosary Mission School enrollment exceeded 300 students for the first time.|
|1925-1926||18 Jesuits (6 priests and 12 brothers), 18 Sisters of St. Francis, three lay teachers, 10 catechists, and three other lay employees served the mission, school, and chapels throughout reservation.|
|1926||Our Lady of Lourdes Mission was established in Porcupine.|
|1930||The Diocese of Lead became the Diocese of Rapid City, reflecting the change in see cities from Lead to Rapid City.|
|1931||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1931-1937||Our Lady of Lourdes School was opened at Porcupine and became the second Catholic school on the Pine Ridge Reservation.|
|1931-1937||Our Lady of Lourdes School was staffed by Sisters of the Holy Humility of Mary (Villa Marie, Pennsylvania).|
|1935-1936||A new gymnasium was constructed at Holy Rosary.|
|1936||The junior high school was re-established.|
|1937-1942||Grades nine through twelve were added at the Holy Rosary Mission School.|
|1937-present||Our Lady of Lourdes School was staffed by Notre Dame Sisters (headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska) and lay teachers.|
|1938||The enrollment at the Holy Rosary Mission School exceeded 400 students for the first time.|
|1938||Holy Rosary Mission celebrated its golden anniversary and a Catholic Sioux Congress was held.|
|1941||Holy Rosary Mission established the High School and created the position of high school principal. The first high school prom was held.|
|1941-1942||The Holy Rosary Mission School won the South Dakota Catholic High School Basketball Championships.|
|1947-1948||Holy Rosary again won the South Dakota Catholic High School Basketball Championships.|
|1942||The Holy Rosary Mission High School received accreditation and the first high school class graduates.|
|1942||Fire caused extensive damage at Holy Rosary Mission.|
|1943-1959||Several parishes closed throughout the reservation.|
|1946||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1947-1969||Bishop William T. McCarty (1889-1972), C.Ss.R., served as the fourth Bishop of Rapid City (formerly, Diocese of Lead).|
|1949||The Jesuits, in cooperation with the Diocese of Rapid City, established Mother Butler Center and St. Isaac Jogues Church in Rapid City, which were administered by Holy Rosary Mission.|
|1952||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1955||Among the Jesuits, administration of Holy Rosary Mission transferred to the Wisconsin Province (Milwaukee, Wisconsin).|
|1955-1956||The enrollment of the Holy Rosary Mission School exceeded 500 students for the first time.|
|1955, 1957||The Holy Rosary Mission High School won the Catholic Indian Basketball Championships.|
|1961||Holy Rosary Mission hosted the 22nd annual meeting of the Tekakwitha Conference.|
|1963||Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.|
|1964||The Holy Rosary Mission School admitted its first "day students," who went home daily and did not reside in the school dormitories.|
|April, 1968||As Chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Indian Education, Senator Robert F. Kennedy visited Rosebud and Pine Ridge reservations, including Holy Rosary Mission School.|
|1968||The Holy See approved the restoration of the permanent diaconate as a ministry for the Church in the United States.|
|1968||The first Adult Basic Education classes were held at Holy Rosary Mission.|
|Reverend Theodore Zuern, S.J., established the Red Cloud Indian Art Show.|
|1968||U.S. Senators Robert Kennedy and George McGovern toured the school and visited with students.|
|Bishop Harold J. Dimmerling (1914-1987) served as the fifth Bishop of Rapid City.|
|1969||Holy Rosary Mission, which was legally incorporated as the Pine Ridge Educational Society, was renamed Red Cloud Indian School on December 4th.|
|1970||The enrollment at Our Lady of Lourdes School exceeded 100 students for the first time.|
|1971||Red Cloud Indian School phased out dormitories among students in the elementary grades.|
|1971||Red Cloud Indian School hosted the 32nd annual meeting of the Tekakwitha Conference.|
|1972||A flood in Rapid City killed Reverend Francis Collins, S.J. and severely damaged the Mother Butler Center and St. Isaac Jogues Church.|
|1973||The American Indian Movement occupied and destroyed Sacred Heart Church, Wounded Knee, which was rebuilt in the 1980s.|
|1973||The Office of Superior of the Jesuit Community was separated from the Office of Director of the Mission.|
|1974||The Diocese of Rapid City established a permanent deaconate program.|
|1975||The Diocese of Rapid City ordained Steven Red Elk and Reno Richards as deacons. They are the first Native Americans in the United States to be so ordained.|
|1975||The Red Cloud Indian School, Office of Director, was renamed Office of the President.|
|1977-1978||The Diocese of Rapid City established the Sioux Spiritual Center, Maphiya Na Maka Okogina ["Between Heaven and Earth"] at Plainview as an administrative and retreat center for the permanent diaconate and Native outreach programs.|
|1978, 1981, 1982,||The boy's high school basketball team won the Lakota Nation Invitational Basketball Championships for the 1977-1978, 1980-1981,|
|1989||1981-1982, and 1988-1989 school years.|
|1970s||Pastors residing at Red Cloud Indian School now serve the parishes in Kyle, Oglala, Porcupine, and Wanblee.|
|1980||Red Cloud Indian School phased out its remaining dormitories and completed its transformation from a boarding school to a day school.|
|1982||The Heritage Center was founded to collect, preserve, and exhibit Native American art under director Brother C.M. Simon, S.J.|
|1983||St. Stephens Church, north of Kyle, held the first Mini-Tekakwitha Conference.|
|1984||Christ the King Church, Porcupine, held a Mini-Tekakwitha Conference.|
|1985||Reverend Collins P. Jordan (1917-2004) was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Rapid City. He was the first Oglala Indian in the Diocese to be so ordained.|
|1985?||The Sisters of St. Francis serving at Red Cloud Indian School, St. Francis Mission (Rosebud Reservation), and in nearby Nebraska towns, merged their communities and formed the Serena Regional Community.|
|1988-1997||Bishop Charles J. Chaput (1944-, Potawatomi), O.F.M. Cap. served as 6th Bishop of Rapid City, then Archbishop of Denver and Archbishop of Philadelphia. He was the second Native American appointed as a bishop in the United States.|
|1997-2010||Bishop Blase J. Cupich (1949-) served as 7th Bishop of Rapid City.|
|1988||Red Cloud Indian School celebrated its centennial year.|
|1988||Mother Butler Center, Rapid City, held a Mini-Tekakwitha Conference.|
|1990||The Diocese established an Inculturation Project Office to revitalize the faith among its 14,000 Brule, Hunkpapa, Oglala, and Sans Arc Indian Catholics.|
|1992||The Diocesan Inculturation Project Office surveyed 10% of the American Indian Catholics and found 43% under age 18 and less than 20% practicing the Catholic faith.|
|1992||On behalf of himself and all pre-World War II American Indian catechists in the Diocese, Harry Blue Thunder (Brule) of the Rosebud Reservation received the Lumen Christi Award of the Catholic Church Extension Society.|
|A devastating fire destroyed the Holy Rosary Mission Church and damaged other areas.|
|1996||The Red Cloud High School boy's basketball team won the Class A Boys' High School State Basketball Tournament.|
|1998||A new Church of the Holy Rosary was built and the Heritage Center was renovated extensively.|
|1998||A tornado destroyed Our Lady of the Sioux Church and all buildings of the parish in Oglala, which were replaced by a new church, parish hall, youth center, and sisters' residence.|
|1999-||Red Cloud students began to receive the Gates Millennium Scholarship.|
|2003||Robert Brave Heart, Sr., became the School's first lay, Lakota superintendent.|
|2008||In conjunction with the Indiana University American Indian Studies Program, Red Cloud Indian School established its Lakota Language Program to revitalize the living use of the Lakota language and to encourage strong and healthy Lakota identities.|
|2011||U.S. Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito and federal court justices of the 8th U.S. Circuit Court visited Red Cloud Indian School.|
|2011-||Bishop Robert D. Gruss served as 8th Bishop of Rapid City.|
|2016||72 Red Cloud students had received the Gates Millennium Scholarship -- the highest per capita of any school in the United States.|
|2017||The Red Cloud Indian School system serves over 600 Lakota students, K-12. This includes a comprehensive Lakota language curriculum, its support of Lakota cultural identity through The Heritage Center and the Red Cloud Art Show, and its ministry to thousands more through its Catholic parishes.|
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus. From 1888-1941, the Superior of the Jesuit Community served simultaneously as the Director of Holy Rosary Mission.
Dates Served Name of Superior (Birth-Death) 1888-1892 Reverend John B. Jutz (1838-1924), S.J. 1892-1895 Reverend P. Florentin Digmann (1846-1931), S.J. 1895-1896 Reverend John B. Jutz (1838-1924), S.J. 1896-1903 Reverend Aloysius Bosche (1852-1903), S.J. 1903-1908 Reverend Mathias Schmitt (1862-1936), S.J. 1908-1916 Reverend Eugene Buechel (1874-1954), S.J. 1916-1920 Reverend Henry Grotegeers (1871-1957), S.J. 1920-1926 Reverend Louis J. Goll (1877-1946), S.J. 1926-1932 Reverend Albert C. Riester (1874-1951), S.J. 1932-1934 Reverend Aloysius J. Keel (1876-1936), S.J. 1934-1936 Reverend Daniel B. McNamara (1895-1986), S.J. 1936-1941 Reverend Martin A. Schiltz (1891-1979), S.J. 1941-1947 Reverend Francis J. Collins (1903-1972), S.J. 1947-1950 Reverend Leo A. Doyle (1895-1981), S.J. 1950-1955 Reverend Harold A. Fuller (1911-1955), S.J. 1955-1963 Reverend Lawrence E. Edwards (1907-1992), S.J. 1963-1965 Reverend Robert W. Lambeck (1917-), S.J. 1965-1968 Reverend Earl J. Kurth (1916-), S.J. 1968-1973 Reverend Ted F. Zuern (1921-2007), S.J. 1973-1979 Reverend Joseph D. Sheehan (1918-1997), S.J. 1979-1985 Reverend Eugene E. Zimmerman (1918-2007), S.J. 1985-1991 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J. 1991-1994 Reverend John M. Paul (1949-), S.J. 1995-1996 Reverend David L. Smith (1953-), S.J. 1996-2002 Reverend William F. Pauly (1947-), S.J. 2002-ongoing Reverend Patrick Burns (1933-), S.J.
Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity
Sources: House Chronicle of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity and The Official Catholic Directory. From 1888-1970, the Superior of the Sisters St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity served simultaneously as the Principal of the Red Cloud Elementary School/Holy Rosary Mission Grade School. In 1985, the communities in Nebraska and South Dakota merged and created the Serena Regional Community.
Dates Served Name of Superior (Birth-Death) 1888-1900 Reverend Mother Kostka Schlaghecken (1850-1932), O.S.F. 1900-1901 Sister Magdalene, O.S.F. 1901-1907 Reverend Mother Lucia, O.S.F. 1907-1915 Reverend Mother Petra, O.S.F. 1915-1921 Reverend Mother Ludgera Terhegger (1874-1959), O.S.F. 1921-1927 Reverend Mother M. Rosalinde Neuenhofer (1879-1927), O.S.F. 1927-1933 Reverend Mother Ludgera Terhegger (1874-1959), O.S.F. 1933-1938 Reverend Mother Leocadia Stecher, O.S.F. 1938-1939 Sister Bertrand Fleming (1893-1984), O.S.F. 1939-1944 Reverend Mother M. Evarista Carver (1882-1960), O.S.F. 1944-1950 Sister Bertrand Fleming (1893-1984), O.S.F. 1950-1954 Reverend Mother M. Agnesine Hargarten (1913-1985), O.S.F. 1954-1957 Reverend Mother Grace Wohlgemuth (1924-?), O.S.F. 1957-1960 Reverend Mother M. Adeltrude Fries (1897-1978), O.S.F. 1961-1966 Reverend Mother M. Bernard Meyer (1923-), O.S.F. 1966-1969 Sister Helen Borszich (1935-), O.S.F. 1969-1970 Sister Marie Therese Archambault (Hunkpapa, 1939-2007), O.S.F. 1970-1985 Unknown
Sisters of the Humility of Mary
From 1931-1937, the Superior of the Humility of Mary Sisters served simultaneously as the Principal of the Our Lady of Lourdes Grade School. The Humility of Mary Sisters were followed by the Notre Dame Sisters, 1937-unknown.
Dates Served Name of Superior (Birth-Death) 1931 Sister John Berchmans Bradley (1872-1955), H.M. 1931-1937 Sister Mildred Walsh-Maloney (1885-1950), H.M.
Red Cloud Indian School is a private school system comprised of three schools on the Pine Ridge Reservation -- Red Cloud Elementary (Pine Ridge), Our Lady of Lourdes Elementary (Porcupine), and Red Cloud High School (Pine Ridge).
Presidents/Directors, Red Cloud Indian School
Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus. From 1888-1968, the Superior of the Jesuit Community served simultaneously as the Director of the Red Cloud Indian School/Holy Rosary Mission School. In 1975, The title of Director was changed to President.
Dates Served Name (Birth-Death) 1888-1968 See list of Jesuit Superiors. 1968-1974 Reverend Theodore (Ted) F. Zuern (1921-2007), S.J. 1974-1976 Reverend Anthony L. Dagelen (1926-), S.J. 1976-1985 Reverend Earl J. Kurth (1916-), S.J. 1985-1991 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J. 1991-1995 Reverend John M. Paul (1949-), S.J. 1995-1998 Reverend William McKenney G. (-1998), S.J. 1995-1999 Sister Patricia Cruise, S.C. (Acting) 1999-2010 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J. 2010-present Reverend George E. Winzenburg (1945-), S.J.
Superintendents, Red Cloud Indian School
Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus. The Red Cloud Indian School system established the position of superintendent in 1966.
Dates Served Name (Birth-Death) 1966-1972 Reverend John F. Bryde (1920-), S.J. 1972-1974 Reverend Gary T. Brophy (1937-1990), S.J. 1974-1976 Reverend Edward D. Mathie (1937-), S.J. 1976-1979 Reverend James J. Strzok (1939-) , S.J. 1979-1983 Reverend Edward D. Mathie (1937-), S.J. 1983-1994 Reverend David G. Matzko (1949-), S.J. 1994-1995 Reverend John M. Paul (1949-), S.J. 1995-1997 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J. 1997-2000? Reverend Thomas J. Merkel (1962-), S.J. 2000?-2003 Reverend Richard P. (Rich) Abert (1963-), S.J. 2003-2012 Robert Brave Heart, Sr. 2012-present Theodore L. Hamilton
Principals, Red Cloud Elementary School
Source: The Official Catholic Directory. From 1888-1970, the Superior of the Sisters St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity served simultaneously as the Principal of the Red Cloud Elementary School/Holy Rosary Mission Grade School.
Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)
See list of Superiors of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity. 1970-2000? Unknown 2000?-2000? Ms. Barb Calkins 2000?-present Ms. Jennifer Sierra
Principals, Red Cloud High School
Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Jesuit Provinces and Holy Rosary Mission/Red Cloud Indian School Records. From 1941-1972, the mission director/superintendent served simultaneously as the principal of Red Cloud High School/Holy Rosary Mission High School.
Dates Served Name (Birth-Death) 1941-1942 Reverend William J. Fitzgerald (1904-1965), S.J. 1942-1944 Reverend Anthony J. Adams (1908-1994), S.J. 1944-1955 Reverend Lawrence E. Edwards (1907-1992), S.J. 1955-1964 Reverend John F. Bryde (1920-), S.J. 1964-1965 Reverend Paul B. Steinmetz (1922-), S.J. (Acting) 1965-1966 Reverend John F. Bryde (1920-), S.J. 1966-1968 Reverend Lawrence A. Jonas (1921-), S.J. 1968-1970 Reverend Joseph J. Labaj (1921-1985), S.J. 1970-1972 Reverend Hubert Boschert (1937-), S.J. 1972-1974 Sister Sheila Carroll (1928-), O.S.F 1974-1978 Reverend W. Kiley Stolz (1932-), S.J. 1978 Mr. John Lemak (1940-) 1978-1979 Reverend Edward D. Mathie (1937-), S.J. 1979-1990 Mr. Charles Cuny (1946-, Oglala) 1990-1992 Ms. Norma Tibbits (1947-, Oglala) 1992-2001 Mr. Robert Brave Heart (Oglala) 2002-2004 Reverend Thomas A. Simonds (1964-), S.J. 2004-2005 Reverend Paul Coelho, S.J., Ph.D. 2005?-present Mr. Nicholas Dressell
Source: The Official Catholic Directory.
Dates Served Name (Birth-Death) 1926-2000s Unknown 2000s Ms. Alice Phelps
Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus.
Dates Served Name (Birth-Death) 1926-1936 Reverend Leo C. Cunningham (1888-1965), S.J. 1936-1944 Reverend Louis E. Meyer (1900-1985), S.J. 1944-1950 Reverend William J. Fitzgerald (1904-1965), S.J. 1950-1975 Reverend Leonard J. Fencl (1905-1986), S.J. 1975-1976 Reverend John A. Hennessy (1934-), S.J. 1977-1982 Reverend Anthony L. Dagelen (1926-), S.J. 1982-1997 Reverend Ronald S. Seminara (1944-), S.J. 1997-2002 Reverend James H. Ryan (1937-), S.J. 2002-present Reverend William F. Pauly (1947-), S.J.
Oglala Sioux Tribal Presidents who attended Red Cloud Indian High School
Sources: Holy Rosary Mission - Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 2-2 at Marquette University and the Oglala Sioux Tribe Archives at Oglala Lakota College. Oglala Lakota College maintains a presidential portrait gallery in the Woksape Tipi (Library) at its Piya Wiconi Campus, Kyle, South Dakota. Since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act in 1934, 35 Oglala Lakota Presidents have served 2-year terms of office from 1935 to 2002. The following presidents attended Red Cloud High School.
Presidential Service Name (Birth-Death)
Graduated from High School 13th President (1957-1960) James L. Iron Cloud (1950-)
1970 15th President (1962-1964) William Whirlwind Horse (1941-) Allen - 22nd President (1976-1978) Albert W. Trimble (1925?-)
- 26th President (1984-1986) Newton Cummings (1937-) Martin 1957
From 1901-1937, itinerant Jesuits from Holy Rosary Mission established and attended to many chapels and missions throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation. Multiple congregation and/or community names indicate name changes with current ones appearing first followed by past ones. Congregations with resident pastors are so noted.
Source: Entry Number M-222 of Guide to Catholic-Related Records in the Midwest about Native Americans, 2003.
|Congregation, Community||Dates (Disposition)|
|Sacred Heart Mission, Pine Ridge [Village]/ Pine Ridge Agency||1890-present (1928, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|Holy Rosary Church, Holy Rosary Mission||1898-present|
|St. Joseph's Mission, Hisle/ Bear Creek||1901-1959 (1919, transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin; closed)|
|Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Martin||1901- (1929, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|St. Peter's Mission, St. Peter/ Wounded Knee Creek||1901-ca. 1973 (closed)|
|St. Paul's Mission, Porcupine Creek||1905- (1931, transferred to Our Lady of Lordes, Porcupine)|
|Our Lady of Good Counsel/ St. Anthony's/ Holy Guardian Angels Mission, Slim Butte||1905-present|
|St. Stephen's Mission, Lower Medicine Root||1906- (1970s, transferred to Our Lady of Sorrors, Kyle)|
|Our Lady of Good Counsel Mission, No Water||1908-?|
|Our Lady of the Lake Mission, Lacreek||1909- (1919, transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin)|
|St. John of the Cross Mission/ St. Lucy's, Allen/ Plenty Bears||1910- (1970s, transferred to St. Ignatius, Wanblee)|
|(1980s, transferred to Our Lady of Sorrows, Kyle)|
|St. Henry's Mission, Potato Creek||1910-1959, 1970s-present|
|St. Paul's Mission, Sharp's Corner||1912- (n.d., transferred to St. Agnes, Manderson)|
|St. Ignatius Mission, Lips Camp||1912-1916 (closed)|
|Forty Martyrs Mission, Plenty Bears||1912-ca. 1920 (closed)|
|Sacred Heart Mission, Wounded Knee/Brennan||1913-present (1931, transferred to Our Lady of Lordes, Porcupine)|
|St. Agnes Mission, Manderson||1913-present (ca. 1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Mission, Martin||1917-present (1919, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|Sacred Heart Mission, Vetal||1917- present (1919, transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin)|
|St. Margaret's Mission, Grass Creek||1917-1925 (closed)|
|St. Magdalene's Mission, Lower Porcupine||1917-1925 (closed)|
|St. Bernard's Mission, Red Shirt/ Red Shirt Table/ Cheyenne River||1917-1949 (closed), 1970-present|
|St. Anne's/St. Anthony's Mission, Wolf Creek||1917-1959 (closed)|
|Our Lady of Sorrows/ Ss. Mary and Anna Mission, Kyle||1917- (1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|Our Lady of the Sioux/ St. Elizabeth's Mission, Oglala||1917-present (1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|(1999, destroyed by tornado; 2001, rebuilt)|
|St. Joseph's Mission, Lake View||1920-1925 (closed)|
|St. Elizabeth's Mission, Rock Creek||1920-1925 (closed)|
|Our Lady of Sorrows Mission, Spring Creek||1920-1925 (closed)|
|Immaculate Conception Mission, Wanamaker||1920-1925 (closed)|
|Christ the King Church and Our Lady of Lourdes Mission, Porcupine||1926-present (1931, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|St. Mary Magdalene Mission, Rockyford||1926-1961 (1931, transferred to Our Lady of Lourdes, Porcupine; closed)|
|St. Madeline Sophie Mission, Three Mile Creek||1926-1959 (closed)|
|St. Ignatius Loyola Mission, Wanblee||1926- (1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)|
|St. Joseph's Mission, Cuny Table||1926-present (ca. 1975, transferred to Our Lady of Lourdes, Porcupine)|
|St. Cecelia's Mission, Red Water||1926-1943 (closed)|
|St. Charles Borromeo Mission, Batesland||1926-1969 (transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin)|
|St. Barbara's Mission, White River/Medicine Root Creek||1931-1943 (closed)|
|St. Anthony's/St. Lucy's Mission, Corn Creek||1931-1950 (closed)|
|St. Ann's Mission, Colored Hills||1933-ca. 1956 (closed)|
|St. Aloysius Mission, Holy Rosary Mission Ranch, Nebraska||1936-1953 (closed)|
|Our Lady of Perpetual Help Mission, Pine Creek||1936-1959 (closed)|
|Holy Rosary Mission, Interior||ca. 1955-present (1970s, transferred to St. Ignatius, Wanblee)|
Notable Sources: Stipend lists in Series 3-2 Financial Records, 1928-1931, The Catholic Church among the Oglala People, Historical Notes (1876-1985), 1985, and We Walk By Faith, The Growth of the Catholic Faith in Western South Dakota by Sr. Eleanor Solon, O.S.B., 2002. Data from the Stipend Lists was compiled in 1992 for the Lumen Christi Award Application of the Diocese of Rapid City.
Name (Birth-Death) Community and Dates Served [Afraid of] Hawk, Emil Unknown, 1930-1931, n.d. Apple
Unknown, 1931, n.d., Kyle, 1928-1931, n.d. Bald Eagle Bear, Peter Wanblee, 1928-1931, n.d. Black Elk [Nicholas W., Sr.] (1862-1950) Oglala, 1907; Manderson, 1907-1914, 1916-1936, Ravinia, Yankton Reservation, 1913-1916 Boyer, John Unknown, 1928-1931, n.d. Broken Leg, Moses Kyle, n.d. Catches, Paul Manderson, n.d. Fast Horse, Phillip Allen, n.d. Fast Wolf Antoine Pine Ridge, n.d. Ed Unknown, 1928-1929, n.d. Philip Wounded Knee, n.d. Tomas Unknown, 1928-1931, n.d. Fills the Pipe, Silas Red Shirt Table, 1928-1931, n.d. Fool Head, John Slim Butte, 1928-1931, n.d. Grass Jr., Jim Porcupine, 1929-1930, n.d. Hernandez, Reyes [Raymond?] Cheyenne Creek, 1928-1931, n.d. Horn Cloud, Joe Potato Creek and Slim Butte, n.d. Iron White Man Unknown, 1928- 1928, n.d. Jealous of Him, Oscar [prayer leader] Lower Medicine Root, 1990s Long, Dave Oglala, n.d. Marrowbone, Ben Calico, 1928-1931, n.d. Mesteth Manderson, n.d. Mousseaux, Louis P. Kyle, n.d. Patton, William Unknown, 1931-1931, n.d. Poor Bear, W. Unknown, 1929-1929, n.d. Randall, Charles "Charlie" Oglala, 1931-1931, n.d. Randall, William "Bill" Bear Creek, 1928-1931, n.d. Red Hair, William Unknown, 1929-1931, n.d. Red Horn, Albert Unknown, 1928-1931, n.d. Red Willow, Joseph Wanblee, n.d. Richard, Joseph Unknown, 1930-1931, n.d. Slow Bear, John Oglala, n.d. Star [Comes Out], Ivan No Water, 1928-1931, n.d. Two Two, Alex 1928-1928, n.d. White Crow, Paul Edward Oglala, n.d.; Wanblee, 1928-1930, n.d. Yellow Bull, Tom Manderson, 1931-1931, n.d.
Native Peramemt Deacons (Diocesan Clergy)
Sources: Diocese of Rapid City and The Official Catholic Directory.
|Dates Served||Name (Birth-Death)||Community, Dates Served|
|1975-1986||Reverend Mr. Stephen Red Elk (Oglala) (1917-1986)||Manderson, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1975-1986.|
|1975-ongoing||Reverend Mr. Reno Richards (Oglala) (1938- )||Allen, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1975- .|
|1978-1996||Reverend Mr. Victor Bull Bear (Oglala) (1939-1996)||Kyle and Lower Medicine Root, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1978-1996.|
|1982-1995||Reverend Mr. Francis Hairy Chin (Hunkpapa) (1916-1997)||Kenel, Standing Rock Reservation, 1982-1991; Rapid City, 1991-1995.|
|1984-2002||Reverend Mr. Lawrence Whiting (Oglala) (1913-2002)||Kyle, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1984-2002.|
|1985-ongoing||Reverend Mr. Harold Congdon (Sans Arc) (1949-)||Cherry Creek, Cheyenne River Reservation, 1985-1988; Oglala, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1985-1994;|
|Dupree, Cheyenne River Reservation, 1994-1998; Parmelee, Rosebud Reservation, 1998-?|
|1986-ongoing||Reverend Mr. James "Heavy" Garnett (Oglala) (1936-dec.)||Rapid City, 1986-?|
|1994-ongoing||Reverend Mr. Leroy DeCory (Brulé) (1938- )||St. Francis, Rosebud Reservation, 1994-1995; Rapid City, 1995-ongoing|
|1995-ongoing||Reverend Mr. Calvin Clifford (Oglala)
Native Priests (Diocesan Clergy)
Sources: Diocese of Rapid City and The Official Catholic Directory.
Name (Birth Forenames, Birth-Death) Jordan (Oglala), Reverend Collins "C.P." P. (1917-2004) ordained a diocesan priest in 1985.
O.S.F. = Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity
S.S.S.F. = School Sisters of St. Francis
Sources: The Catholic Church among the Oglala People, Historical Notes (1876-1985), 1985, and the Sacred Heart Province Archives (Denver, Colorado) of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity.
Name (Birth Forenames, Birth-Death) Archambault (Hunkpapa), Sister Marie Therese (Ida) (1939-2007), O.S.F. Clifford (Oglala), Sister Bernardette (Anita) (1937-), O.S.F. Clifford (Oglala), Sister Geraldine (Esther) (1931-), O.S.F. Cuny (Oglala), Sister Genevieve (Carmilita) (1930-), O.S.F. McGaa (Oglala), Sister Helena, S.S.S.F. Mousseau (Oglala), Sister Lucy, S.S.S.F.